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1a)
Scale 1:25,000

1b)
i)it has few social amenities
ii)it is a feature of rural settlements
iii)they are only motivate in primary
activities like farming lumbering fisht
etc

1bii)
i)water transport
1c)
i)dentritic pattern
====================
3a )
Erosion is the process of eroding or
being eroded by wind ,
water, or other natural agents . While
Mass movement is
the movement of surface material
caused by gravity .
the movement of surface material
caused by gravity .

3b )
i ) runing water
ii) winds
iii) waves
vi ) glaciers

3c )
i ) Water
– rainwater acts as a lubricant to
weathered materials .
ii) Vegetation
– lack of vegetation cover to hold the
loose particles .
iii) Rock structure
– joints dipping downslope usually
assists landslides , rockfalls ,
rockslide ,
rock creep .
==========================
4a)
i)Rarely has fossils
ii)React with acid
iii)have alternate bands of light
and dark minerals
4b)
i)formed through the action of heat
and pressure
ii)formed from clay
iii)formed from limestone
4c)
i)rocks are source of minerals eg
gold,silver,petroleum etc
ii)rocks are source of materials for
construction
iii)rocks serves as raw materials for
industry eg cement industry
=================
5b)
i) For transportation
ii) For tourist attraction
iii) Source of livelihood
=============
7a )
i ) Agricultural Pollution
ii) Oil Pollution .
iii) Radioactive Substances polution
iv ) River dumping pollution
v ) Marine Dumping pollution
7b )
i ) A regular qualitative and
quantitative monitoring of fresh
water resources.
ii) Construct proper sanitary landfill
sites.
iii) Investigate ground water quality .
iv ) Provide government help for
waste management by
industries .
v ) Throw refuse into garbage cans .
Visitors who throw
garbage into pools , lakes , ponds,
and even along the
beaches pollute recreational sites on a
daily basis
=====================
===
6a)Soil can be defined as the organic
and inorganic materials on the surface
of the earth that provide the medium
for plant growth.
6bii Clay soils with 25-40% clay
These soils have a good ability to
transport water by
capillary action from deep layers but
the rate is slow, so plant water
requirements are not met through
capillary water.
2 These soils are darker in colour and
soil aggregation is more distinct.
============
8)
a) *Causes of Desert Encroachment*
1. Human activities: such activities
such as over-grazing, over-cultivation,
bush burning, and excessive cutting of
firewood greatly reduce the vegetative
cover and expose the land to drought
and desertification. Examples of areas
with desert encroachment are the
Sahelian zones of Nest Africa,
Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan.
2. Change in Weather: The frequent
and prolonged dry weather increases
the aridity of affected areas.
3. The southward movement of the dry
sub-tropical high pressure belt results
in severe drought in semi-arid regions.
b) *Effects of Desert Encroachment*
1. Large scale disruption of socio-
economic life arising from crop failure
and shortage of water and pasture for
livestock.
2. Widespread malnutrition and
diseases such as kwashiokor and
marasmus.
3. Migration of people from drought
areas to more humid areas.
4. Large refugee population, that are
made up of victims of drought and
social insecurity in the semi-arid
areas.
5. Disruption of ecological balance and
loss of vegetation, soil and water
resources.
c) *Preventive Measures of Desert
Encroachment*
1. Conservation of existing vegetation
through legislation against
indiscriminate exploitation and felling
of forests and trees.
2. Legislation and strong control
against bush burning.
3. Improved grazing practices.
4. Establishment of shelter belts to
protect the soil and arrest the effect of
desertification.
5. Afforestation programs.
6. Integrated rural development.
Factors that affect Mass Movement
It is very clear, that mass movement
or mass wasting is movement of
weathered material with the aid of
gravity, there are many factors that
affect this movement. I shall tell you
about 6 main factors as follows:
1. Where permeable rocks alternate
with impermeable rocks, the
permeable rocks are more more prone
to mass wasting than the impermeable
rocks.
2. Mass movement is pronounced in
areas with steep slopes where the
weathered layer is deep and the
weathered materials are loose.
Naturally, the rate of movement of
weathered materials is faster on steep
slopes than on gentle slopes.
3. Mass movement is encouraged if
there are earthquakes and volcanic
eruptions.
4. Areas with a high annual range of
temperature and a high frequency of
freezing and thawing will encourage
soil creep while areas with a high
temperature and occasional torrential
rainfall encourage mudflow.
5. Mass movement is also encouraged
if there is no vegetation.
6. The activities of man like mining
and herding of animals encourage the
production of mass movement or mass
wasting. This are the factors that
affect Mass movement or wasting.
==============

posted by:kvng_khalifah { malo }

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